M.T. Ciaffaroni, Sailing Across - Zanichelli editore

MODULE D - Lexicon
Information Technology

Printable version

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W

Database: Base dati.
A computer file or system of data organised in records and fields for fast retrieval and ease of updating.

Debugging: Ricerca degli errori.
Executing a program, one statement at a time, to identify and fix error.

(To) Decrypt: Decifrare.
To decode data that has been encrypted into a secret format. Decryption requires a secret key or password.

Dedicated line: Linee telefoniche dedicate.
A telephone line leased expressly for the purpose of connecting two users more-or-less permanently. Such lines may be "voice grade", which provides the bandwidth and signal of ordinary public switched telephone network circuits, or specified in ways which allow transport of suitably encoded digital signals at faster rates. This contrasts with a dial-up connection, which is only opened when one end requires it.

Desktop: The area on your computer screen on which icons for your hard drive, files, disks, and applications appear.

Device: Dispositivo.
A component of the system's hardware configuration, such as a modem, printer, mouse, sound card, or disk drives.

Dial up connection: Connessione tramite normale linea telefonica.
A temporary, as opposed to dedicated, connection between machines established over a telephone line using modems. The most popular form of Net connection for the home user, this is a connection from your computer to a host computer over standard telephone lines.

Direct connection: Connessione diretta.
A permanent connection between your computer system and the Internet. This is sometimes referred to as a leased-line connection because the line is leased from the Telephone Company.

(To) Digitise: Digitalizzare.
To convert a signal, image or sound into digital code by using an analogue-digital conversion device.

Display: Schermo.
(n) Short for display screen or monitor. (v) To make data or images appear on a monitor.

Document: Documento web.
When used in reference to the World Wide Web, a document is any file containing text, media or hyperlinks that can be transferred from an HTTP server to a client program.

Domain: Dominio.
Part of the Internet Protocol (IP) address, used to identify the organisation or local network that a local host is connected to.

Domain name: Nome di dominio.
The name of a computer (server) on the Internet which must be registered with a central organisation. Ensures that only one computer on the Internet is named in this way. The domain name in an address (URL) tells you the official, registered name of each site.

DNS (Domain Name System): An Internet database that translates between numeric IP addresses and text-based domain names. When users type an Internet address into their web browser, for example, the request goes to a DNS server that translates the name into appropriate numeric IP address.

Download: Scaricare.
To transfer data or code from one computer to another. To transfer a file from a computer on the Internet to your personal computer.

Drag and drop: Trascinamento.
An action performed using a mouse. Used to move icons on the screen and in selecting commands from menus. Position the cursor/pointer on an item, press and hold the mouse button, move the cursor to a new location (by sliding the mouse), and then release the mouse button.

Driver: A memory resident program usually used to control a hardware device.

DSL: Digital Subscriber Line technology for transmitting data up to 50 times faster than present analogue modem and ISDN alternatives. Telephone companies are hoping that DSL service will keep telephone lines competitive with cable modems and other competitive alternatives to present telephone transmission services.

Embedded mode: Sistema dedicato.
A term used to describe a project development that is characterised by tight, inflexible constraints and interface requirements. The product must operate within (is embedded in) a strongly coupled complex of hardware, software, regulations and operational procedures. An embedded mode project will require a great deal of innovation. An example would be a real-time with timing constraints and customised hardware.

Encryption: Crittografia.
Cryptographic conversion of data into cipher-text in order to prevent any but the intended recipient from reading that data. There are many types of data encryption, and they are the basis of network security. Common types include Data Encryption Standard and Public-key Encryption.

Ethernet: The most common method of transferring data over a LAN. Ethernet now comes in three varieties: 10BaseT operates at a speed up to 10Mbps, 100BaseT, or Fast Ethernet, runs at up to 100Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet, which runs at up to 1Gbps.

FAQ: Domande frequenti.
This is the acronym for Frequently Asked Questions. A common feature on the Internet, FAQs are files of answers to commonly asked questions. Read FAQs before wasting electrons asking obvious questions. Saves you from receiving flames.

Feature: Caratteristica.
A good property or behavior (as of a program). Whether it was intended or not is immaterial.

Feedback: Retroazione.
Part of a system output presented at its input. Feedback may be unintended. Feedback is positive or negative, depending on the sign with which a positive change in the original input reappears after transformation.

Fiber optics: Fibra ottica.
Cable that carries light pulses instead of electrical current. A cable comprised of a multitude of fine glass fibers has much more capacity than the previously popular copper cable.

File: Archivio.
A program, document, utility, anything that isn't hardware on a computer. A file might contain a memo, a drawing done in a graphics application or a program itself.

Firewall: Barriera.
This term refers to security measures designed to protect a networked system from unauthorized or unwelcome access. The idea is to protect a LAN of more loosely administered machines hidden the firewall from hackers and crackers. Incoming packets from the web are met with firewall barriers of various types that reject packets not allowed behind the firewall machine.

Flatbed: Scanner piatto.
A type of optical scanner that consists of a flat surface on which you lay documents to be scanned. Flatbed scanners are particularly effective for bound documents.

Floppy Disk: Dischetto.
A disk that is covered with protective packaging and can be removed from its drive. Currently, floppy disks are generally 3.5 inches wide.

Flow Control: Controllo di flusso.
The processes used to regulate the rate at which information is transferred from one device to another. One device sends a signal to the other when information can be transferred.

Folder: Cartella.
A graphical representation of a directory or subdirectory. Folders contain files and/or other folders.

Font: Serie di caratteri.
A set of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols that are a given size and design. Some fonts can be scaled to any size while others are a fixed size.

Footer: Piè di pagina.
Text that appears at the bottom of document pages when they are printed.

Format: Formattare, formato.
Preparing a disk for use by your hardware and operating system. Also called initializing. When the computer initializes a disk, it also destroys any information already there. Formatting also refers to the way text is set up on a page (underlining, bold, indenting, etc.) and to the way information is structured in a file, often specific to a particular application.

Frame: Cornice.
The boundary that encloses a collection of parts in an open window.

Freeware: Software that is provided without charge. Contrast with shareware.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol): The most common way to download and upload files over the Internet, FTP operations require special software that is built into the most popular web browsers and that is also available in a number of stand-alone applications. Web site builder needs to know how to use FTO to upload files to the web host computer.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W